What governs civil law
General characteristics of civil law
Civil law is considered a private law, that is, regulating the actions of private individuals. Virtually the entire everyday life of citizens and the economic activities of enterprises are governed by civil law.Civil law came into the modern world from ancient Rome. The judicial practice of resolving property disputes of the ancient Romans in the 19th century became the basis of civil codes of European countries.
A distinctive feature of civil law is equality of participants in legal relations, the free will of participants and their property independence. The state as an authority structure practically does not act as a participant in legal relations, with the exception of state registration of rights, property and organizations. The state may be a party to civil law relations as the owner of the property and the founder of enterprises.
In the life of citizens, the norms of civil law are regulated by:
- records of acts of civil status, recognition of the missing, deceased;
- capacity, its occurrence, restriction, deprivation;
- custody and guardianship;
- the conclusion of transactions, contracts (except labor), and other obligations.
In the life of legal entities, the norms of civil law are governed by:
- legal forms of legal entities;
- their creation, reorganization, liquidation;
- direct economic activity associated with the conclusion of contracts, the performance of obligations.The principles of civil law are listed in Art. 1 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.
What else governs civil law
Due to the fact that civil law covers almost all areas of citizens' life and the activities of organizations and enterprises, it is the most voluminous among other branches of law. Civilization has a very complex branched structure. It consists of related sub-sectors, institutions, sub-institutions, which legally fix:
- the legal status of the property in its various forms (things, real estate, money, securities, etc.);
- personal non-property relations of citizens, the possession of intangible benefits;
- the right of ownership (form of ownership, the conditions for the occurrence and termination of rights to property);
- law of obligations - the rules governing property turnover, it includes contract law;
- timing, namely aspects of the use of limitation;
- the institute of representation, that is, participation in civil legal relations by proxy;
- copyright and patent law.
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