The inflammatory process in encephalitis can be localized in the cerebral cortex, its membranes, subcortical nodes, the medulla oblongata. Sometimes it spreads to the spinal cord. By the nature of the inflammation is purulent and purulent. This affects both the general and local symptoms of the disease.
There are several types of encephalitis: tick-borne (spring-summer), Economo (lethargic or sleepy), Japanese (mosquito), herpetic, measles, influenza, infectious, varicella.
Tick-borne encephalitis is also known as taiga or spring-summer. Its carrier is ixodic ticks, the peak of which falls on the end of spring, summer and persists until October. It begins suddenly, with a sharp rise in temperature, painful headaches, worsening of sleep, vomiting, impaired consciousness. Externally, tick-borne encephalitis can be suggested by reddening the face, conjunctiva, sclera, neck and upper chest. When meningeal encephalitis appears tension of the occipital muscles. After an acute period (after 6–10 days) residual effects in the form of paralysis may occur.It is also possible the transition of the disease into a chronic form, characterized by changes in the brain tissue, the formation of adhesions and cysts.
Japanese encephalitis is known as mosquito, as the carrier is some species of mosquito. Infection occurs by biting. Manifested by increased muscle tone, a characteristic symptom is bent arms and legs extended, reduced vision, drowsiness, weakness. Often there are convulsions and paralysis, as well as a violation of swallowing and breathing and trembling hands (tremor). The disease is acute and in most cases is fatal. In recovered, paralysis and mental disorders may persist.
Economo-encephalitis, or lethargic, sleepy is transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets. Manifests drowsiness, and patients can sleep in any position: standing, sitting. However, there may be insomnia. In addition, paralysis of the oculomotor nerves develops. With a favorable outcome, the disease often becomes chronic and manifests symptoms of parkinsonism.
Encephalitis caused by measles, herpes, chickenpox, influenza and other infections is secondary.Most often, the symptoms of any of these diseases are associated with meningeal signs: paresis, paralysis, muscle tension in the neck, hand tremor, impaired coordination, mental disorders, photophobia, convulsions and others. However, they can also appear at the stage of recovery. The course of the disease is severe, and even with a favorable outcome, residual effects in the form of paralysis, paresis and nerve disorders are often preserved. But with prompt treatment, recovery begins simultaneously with the main disease.
- what is inflammation of the brain
Tip 2: How encephalitis is transmitted
Encephalitis is a viral disease that is transmitted to animals and people by ticks. The most dangerous symptom of encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Tick-borne encephalitis or taiga encephalitis is an acute neurovirus infection that is transmitted by ticks. It is characterized by a sudden onset, a pronounced fever and various lesions of the central nervous system. The disease is known in two geographic variants - eastern and western encephalitis.
The causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis belongs to group B arboviruses. Among laboratory animals, white mice, cotton rats, hamsters, monkeys are most sensitive to this virus, and domestic animals include sheep, goats, piglets, horses.
The virus is very sensitive to the most common disinfectants and to the effects of high temperatures, but in the dried state can persist for many months and even several years.
Encephalitis carriers are ixodic ticks. They also serve as a reservoir in which the pathogen lives. Infection is possible even in an alimentary way, for example, by eating raw milk. For encephalitis is characterized by seasonality. The first patients, as a rule, appear in April, after which their number increases and reaches maximum values in May-June. But during July-October, there may be isolated individual cases of infection with encephalitis.
As for susceptibility, all age groups of people can become infected with encephalitis. But the most at risk are infections of individuals who, by the nature of their profession, are associated with a forest or frequently visit a forest, such as mushroom pickers.
There are two ways of infection with encephalitis - transmissible and alimentary. In the transmissible way of infection, the skin serves as the entrance gate, and in the alimentary way the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. After penetration under the skin, the latent period of the disease occurs, when the virus multiplies in the subcutaneous tissue, but as a result of dissemination can be detected in the lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract or spleen. The next stage is neural, during which the virus multiplies in the central nervous system. Hard and soft meninges are affected.
The incubation period for encephalitis is from 10 to 14 days. The onset is manifested by weakness, headache and numbness in half of the face or body, mental disorders. Fever is also observed with a temperature rise of up to 39-40.5 degrees. Vomiting, excruciating joint pain and photophobia may occur. On the part of the central nervous system, paresthesias, paresis of the extremities, convulsions, double vision and even loss of consciousness can be observed.
Hospitalization for encephalitis is required. The condition of discharge is full recovery. Special treatment is carried out horse gamma globulin, which is administered intramuscularly in a dosage of up to 6 ml. The use of human hyperimmune gamma-globulin is also possible.
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