Spots on the tongue: causes

White spots

Leukoplakia is a lesion of the oral mucosa and the keratinization of its surface. Excessive growth of epithelial cells leads to the formation of white lesions around the mouth, including the tongue. Although the condition is not dangerous to general health and is well treatable, but in some cases it may serve as a precursor of cancer. When this symptom occurs, you should consult your doctor so that he can prescribe the most appropriate therapy. Leukoplakia often occurs as a result of irritation of the tissues of the oral cavity and occurs regularly in some people who use tobacco products.
Oral thrush is caused by a fungal infection and provokes the appearance of white plaque on the tongue and mucosa. Most often, the disease is typical for young children and the elderly, but people with diabetes, asthma, and an impaired immune system can also become infected. Thrush can develop as a result of taking antibiotics that kill the beneficial microflora of the mouth.
Oral red lichen planus, which forms white lines on the tongue, has specific symptoms. The cause of this condition is unknown, but almost always it goes away on its own without the need for taking additional drugs.

Black spots and redness

Black spots may be a more serious symptom of an existing disease in the body. So, chemical poisoning causes blackening of the entire tongue. This manifestation is characteristic with frequent contact and inhalation of bismuth, which enters into a chemical reaction with acids present in the natural environment of the mouth.
Black hairy tongue is another disorder that is caused by keratinization and growth of the papillae of the surface of the organ. In this case, the color appears as a result of the vital activity of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The condition is provoked by tobacco, alcohol and antibiotics.
In one of the final stages, oral cancer may cause blackening of the tongue. The disease itself is relatively rare and does not always provoke the development of characteristic spots. Usually the disease is accompanied by inflammation in the mouth, fever and difficulty in swallowing.
Redness is caused by a deficiency of vitamins (folic acid and B-12).Another disease is a geographic tongue, which is accompanied by red spots of various shapes with red borders. The disease usually resolves itself, but needs treatment if it lasts for more than 2 weeks. Other illnesses that cause the appearance of characteristic lesions are scarlet fever and Kawasaki syndrome. If inflammation in the mouth is accompanied by a significant increase in temperature, you should immediately consult a doctor.

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