Paper model of the tank Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf.F1 and Pz.Kpf
Paper model of the tank Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf.F1 and Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf.H (Panzerkampfwagen IV)(PzKpfw IV, also Pz. IV; transliterated as Panzerkampfwagen IV; in the USSR was also known as T-IV) - a German medium tank of the Second World War period. The most massive tank Pancervaffe (total produced 8686 cars), was mass-produced in several versions from 1937 to 1945. Constantly increasing armament and booking a tank in most cases allowed PzKpfw IV to effectively resist enemy vehicles of a similar class.
Materials and tools:
- scissors, paper knife, drawing ruler
- glue brushes and paint;
- watercolors (or pencils), toothpicks;
- clear acrylic glue ("Moment", etc.);
- to print the model matte photo paper with a density of 170-180 g / m2; for small parts - 70-80 g / m2.
- Before you assemble the part, read the drawings and instructions. Determine the place of each part and imagine its assembly;
- Make holes in details before cutting out the part;
- Cut only the part (s) you need right now.Unpacked items in a box, and unused sheets in a closed folder (as an option). Throwing out trash after work, carefully inspect the scrap paper;
- To better fold the part, it is necessary to hold the ruler along the fold line, pressing lightly with the blunt side of the knife or a toothpick so as not to damage the paper surface. Better to do it from the wrong side of the part;
- Keep your fingers clean and be sure to use wipes to wipe your hands, because hands may get dirty in the process;
- wind up cylindrical parts before gluing onto a round object of a suitable diameter, this will give them shape;
- Before gluing it is necessary to paint the ends of the part. White crop lines spoil the overall look of the model. To paint the ends, use watercolors or gouache paints. After selecting the desired color, apply them in a thin layer, then allow the paint to dry. About markers better to forget;
- Take your time with gluing. First, cut out the part, paint it from the end, wait for the paint to dry, assemble the part. Attach it to the place where it should be to make sure everything is done correctly. And only then stick. Do not forget to let the glue dry.
A bit of history
German medium tank Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf.F1 and Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf.H
Panzerkampfwagen IV (PzKpfw IV, also Pz. IV; transliterated as Panzercampfwagen IV, in the USSR was also known as T-IV). m. German medium tank during the Second World War. The most massive tank Pancervaffe (total produced 8686 cars), was mass-produced in several versions from 1937 to 1945. Constantly increasing armament and booking a tank in most cases allowed PzKpfw IV to effectively resist enemy vehicles of a similar class.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the defeated World War I, Germany, it was forbidden to have armored forces, except for a small number of armored cars for the police. But despite this, since 1925, the Reichswehr Arms Administration has been secretly working on the creation of tanks. Until the early 1930s, these developments did not go beyond the construction of prototypes, both because of the lack of characteristics of the latter, and because of the weakness of Germany's industry of that period. However, by the middle of 1933, German designers managed to create their first serial tank —Pz.Kpfw.Iandduring1933-1934tobeginitsmassproduction.Pz.Kpfw.I,withitsmachine-gunarmamentandacrewoftwo,wasconsideredonlyasatransitionalmodelontheroadtobuildingmoreadvancedtanks.Thedevelopmentoftwoofthembeganin1933—morepowerful&latransitional» tank, the future Pz.Kpfw.II and a full-fledged battle tank, the future Pz.Kpfw.III, armed with a 37-mm cannon, designed mainly to fight other armored vehicles.
Due to the initial limitations of the Pz.Kpfw.III armament, it was decided, in addition to it, to create a fire support tank, with a more long-range cannon with a powerful fragmentation projectile, capable of striking anti-tank defenses beyond the reach of other tanks. In January 1934, the Arms Management Directorate organized a competition for the creation of a machine of this class, whose mass would not exceed 24 tons. Since the work on armored vehicles in Germany at that time was still conducted in secret, the new project, like the rest, was given the code name of the “battalion commander’s vehicle” »(it.Bataillonsfhhrerwagen,usuallyabbreviatedtoB.W.).Fromtheoutset,thedevelopmentofprojectsforthecompetitiontookthecompany«Rheinmetall»and«Krupp»,latertheywerejoinedby«Daimler-Benz»andM.A.N.Overthenext18months,allfirmspresentedtheirdevelopments,andtheproject“Rhinmetall”» under the designation VK 2001 (Rh) was in 1934 - 1935 even made in metal as a prototype.
All the projects presented had a running gear with a staggered arrangement of large-diameter support rollers and no supporting rollers, with the exception of VK 2001 (Rh), which generally inherited the undercarriage with small diameter fixed rollers and onboard screens from experienced heavy tank Nb.Fz. The best of them was eventually recognized as the project «Krupp»—VK2001(K),buttheArmsDirectoratedidnotsatisfyhisspringsuspension,whichtheydemandedtoreplacewithamoreperfecttorsion.However,«Krupp»Sheinsistedonusingtheundercarriagewithmedium-diameterrollersinterlockedinpairsonaspringsuspension,borrowedfromtherejectedPz.Kpfw.IIIprototypeofitsdesign.Toavoidtheinevitabledelaysintheprocessingoftheprojectunderthetorsionbarsuspensionwiththestartoftheproductionofanurgentlyneededtankarmy,theArmsDirectoratewasforcedtoagreetotheKruppproposal.Followingthefinalizationoftheproject,«Krupp»receivedanorderfortheproductionofpre-serial batchesofanewtank,bythattimereceivedthedesignation"ladenarmoredvehiclewitha75-mmcannon"(Ger.7.5cmGeschtz-Panzerwagen)or,accordingtotheend-to-endnotationadoptedatthetime,«experimentalsample618»(GermanVersuchskraftfahrzeug618orVs.Kfz.618).FromApril1936,thetankacquireditsfinaldesignation— Panzerkampfwagen IV or Pz.Kpfw.IV. In addition, he was assigned the index Vs.Kfz.222, previously owned by Pz.Kpfw.II.
Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf.A — Ausf.F1
The first few Pz.Kpfw.IV «zero»theserieswasmanufacturedin1936&1937attheKruppplant»inEssen.Theserialproductionofthefirstseries,1.Serie/B.W.,WaslaunchedinOctober1937attheKrupp-Gruzonplant»inMagdeburg.Intotal,untilMarch1938,35tanksofthismodificationwerelaunched,designatedasPanzerkampfwagenIVAusf&hrungA(Ausf.A—«Amodel&;). According to the unified system of designations of German armored vehicles, the tank received the Sd.Kfz.161 index. Ausf.A tanks were still pre-production vehicles in many respects and carried bullet-proof reservations not exceeding 15 & 20 mm and poorly protected surveillance devices, especially in the commander’s turret. At the same time, the main design features of Pz.Kpfw.IV have already been identified on Ausf.A, and although in the future the tank was repeatedly upgraded,the changes were mainly reduced to the installation of more powerful reservations and weapons, or to a non-basic alteration of individual nodes.
Immediately after the end of production of the first series, «Krupp»proceededtoproductionofimproved—2.Serie/B.W.orAusf.B.Themostnoticeabledifferenceinthetanksofthismodificationwasthestraightupperfrontplate,withoutoutstanding“cutting”»drivermechanicsandwiththeeliminationofthecoursemachinegun,whichwasreplacedbyanobservationdeviceandahatchforfiringfrompersonalweapons.Thedesignoftheviewingdeviceswasalsoimproved,firstofall,thecommander'sturret,whichreceivedarmorvalves,andtheinspectiondeviceofthedriver.Accordingtootherdata,anewcommander'sturretwasintroducedalreadyintheprocessofproduction,sothatpartofthetanksAusf.Bcarriedacommander'sturretoftheoldtype.Minorchangeshavetouchedandlandinghatchesandvarioushatches.Frontalbookingonthenewmodificationwasincreasedto30mm.Thetankalsoreceivedamorepowerfulengineandanew6-speedtransmission,whichallowedittosignificantlyraiseitsmaximumspeed,anditspowerreservealsoincreased.Atthesametime,theAusf.Bammunitionwasreducedto80shotstothegunand2,700machine-guncartridges,insteadof,respectively,120and3000onAusf.A.«Krupp» was ordered to produce 45 tanks Ausf.B, but because of the lack of components, in fact, from April to September 1938, only 42 machines of this modification were produced.
The first relatively massive modification was 3.Serie / B.W. or Ausf.C. Compared to Ausf.B, the changes in it were insignificant — apparently both modifications are distinguishable only by the presence of an armored casing of the barrel of a coupled machine gun. The remaining changes were reduced to the replacement of the HL 120TR engine with the HL 120TRM of the same power, as well as the beginning of the installation of a bump stop under the gun barrel on a part of the tank to bend the antenna located on the body when the turret rotated. In total, 300 tanks of this modification were ordered, but in March 1938 the order was reduced to 140 units, as a result of which, from September 1938 to August 1939, according to various sources, 140 were made, or 134 tanks, whereas 6 chassis were transferred for conversion into bridge-laying machines.
Machines of the following modification, Ausf.D, were produced in two series —4.Serie/B.W.and5.Serie/B.W.Themostnoticeableexternalchangewasthereturntothebrokenupperupperfrontplateofthehullandthecoursemachinegun,whichreceivedenhancedprotection.Theinternalmaskofthegun,whichwasvulnerabletoleadsplashesfrombullethits,wasreplacedbyanexternalone.Thethicknessofthesideandsternarmorofthehullandtowerwasbroughtto20mm.InJanuary1938,«Krupp» received an order for the production of 200 machines 4.Serie / B.W. and 48 5.Serie / B.W., but during production, from October 1939 to May 1941, only 229 of them were completed as tanks, while the remaining 19 were allocated for the construction of specialized options. Part of the late release Ausf.D tanks was released in the "tropical" option (it. tropen or Tp.), with additional air vents in the engine compartment. A number of sources indicate the 1940 - 1941 years in parts or during the repair of reinforcement of armor, carried out by fastening with bolts an additional 20-mm sheets on the upper side and front plates of the tank. According to other data, the cars of later editions were nominally equipped with additional 20-mm side and 30-mm frontal armor plates of the Ausf.E type. Several Ausf.D were re-equipped in 1943 with long-barreled guns KwK 40 L / 48, but these converted tanks were used only as training.
The appearance of a new modification, 6.Serie / B.W.or Ausf.E, was caused primarily by the lack of armor protection of the machines of the early series, demonstrated during the Polish campaign. On Ausf.E, the thickness of the lower frontal slab was increased to 50 mm, besides this it became standard to install additional 30-mm plates over the upper frontal and 20-mm —abovethesideplates,althoughnoadditional30-mmplateswereinstalledonasmallpartoftheearlyreleasetanks.Thearmorprotectionofthetower,however,remainedthesame—30mmforthefrontplate,20mmforthesideandsternplatesand35mmforthemaskofthegun.Anewcommander'sturretwasintroduced,withaverticalreservationthicknessfrom50to95mm.Theslopeofthesternwallofthetower,nowmadefromasinglesheet,wasalsoreduced,withno“influx”offorturrets,andonlate-releasemachinesanunarmoredboxforequipmentbegantobeattachedtothesternofthetower.Inaddition,Ausf.Etanksdifferedinanumberoflessnoticeablechanges— The new driver's viewing device, simplified driving and steering wheels, improved design of various hatches and inspection hatches and the introduction of a tower fan.The order for the sixth series Pz.Kpfw.IV amounted to 223 units and was executed in full between September 1940 and April 1941, in parallel with the production of Ausf.D tanks.
Escaping additional armor used in previous versions was irrational and was considered only as a temporary solution, which was the reason for the appearance of the following modification, 7. Serie / B.W. or Ausf.F. Instead of using hinged armor, the thickness of the frontal top plate of the hull, the front plate of the turret and the mask of the gun was increased to 50 mm, and the thickness of the sides of the hull and the sides and the stern of the turret —upto30mm.Thebrokenupperfrontplateofthehullwasagainreplacedbyastraightline,butthistimewiththeretentionofacoursemachinegun,andthesidehatchesofthetowerreceiveddoubledoors.Duetothefactthattheweightofthetankafterthechangesmadeincreasedby21%comparedwithAusf.A,widertrackswereintroducedtoreducethegroundpressureontheground.Other,lessnoticeablechangesincludedtheintroductionofventilationairintakesinthemiddlefrontplateforcoolingthebrakes,adifferentarrangementofsilencers,andviewinginstrumentsslightlymodifiedduetothickeningofthearmorandtheinstallationofacoursegun.OntheAusf.Fmodification,forthefirsttime,othercompaniesotherthan«Krupp»joinedtheproductionofPz.Kpfw.IV.Thelatterreceivedthefirstorderfor500carsoftheseventhseries;later,ordersfor100and25unitswerereceivedbythecompany“Lamag”and«Nibelungenwerke». From this amount, from April 1941 to March 1942, before switching production to the modification of Ausf.F2, 462 Ausf.F tanks were produced, 25 of which were converted to Ausf.F2 at the plant.
Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf.F2 — Ausf.J
Although the main purpose of the 75mm gun Pz.Kpfw.IV was the destruction of non-armored targets, the presence in its ammunition armor-piercing shell allowed the tank to successfully fight and armored vehicles protected by bulletproof or light anti-ballistic armor. But against tanks with powerful counter-booking, such as the British «Matilda»ortheSovietKVandT-34,itwascompletelyineffective.Backin1940— the beginning of 1941, the successful combat use of "Matilda" intensified work on the rearmament of Pz.Kpfw.IV with a weapon with the best anti-tank capabilities. Since February 19, 1941, under the personal order of A. Hitler, work was begun on arming the tank with a 50-mm Kw.K.38 L / 42 cannon, also mounted on Pz.Kpfw.III, and in the future, work to strengthen the weapons of Pz.Kpfw. IV also moved under his control.In April, one Pz.Kpfw.IV Ausf.D was reequipped with the newer, more powerful, 50mm Kw.K.39 L / 60 cannon to demonstrate to Hitler for his birthday, April 20th. It was even scheduled to release a series of 80 tanks with such weapons from August 1941, but by that time the interest of the Armaments Office (Heereswaffenamt) shifted to a 75-mm long-barreled gun and these plans were abandoned.
Since Kw.K.39 was already approved as a weapon for Pz.Kpfw.III, for Pz.Kpfw.IV it was decided to choose an even more powerful weapon that could not be installed on Pz.Kpfw.III with its smaller diameter of the tower. Since March 1941, «Krupp» as an alternative to the 50-mm cannon, it considered a new 75-mm cannon with a 40-caliber barrel, designed to re-equip the StuG.III assault guns. At a distance of 400 meters, she punched 70-mm armor at a meeting angle of 60 °, but since the Armaments Department required that the gun barrel did not protrude beyond the dimensions of the tank hull, its length was reduced to 33 calibers, which resulted in a decrease in armor penetration to 59 mm under the same conditions. It was also planned to develop a sub-caliber armor-piercing projectile with a separating pallet, piercing 86-mm armor under the same conditions.The re-equipment of the Pz.Kpfw.IV with the new weapon was successful, and in December 1941 the first prototype with a 7.5 cm Kw.K gun was built. L / 34.5.
Meanwhile, the invasion of the USSR began, during which German troops encountered T-34 and KV tanks, low-vulnerable for the main tank and anti-tank guns of the Wehrmacht and at the same time carrying a 76-mm cannon, penetrating the front armor of German tanks on virtually any real distance combat. The Special Tank Commission, sent to the front in November 1941 to study this question, recommended the re-equipment of German tanks with such an instrument that would allow them to hit Soviet vehicles from long distances, remaining outside the radius of effective fire of the latter. On November 18, 1941, the development of a tank gun, similar in its capabilities to the new 75-mm anti-tank gun, the Pak 40, was initiated. Such a weapon, originally designated Kw.K.44, was developed jointly by &K;Krupp»and«Rheinmetall». The barrel passed to him from the anti-tank gun without changes, but since the shots of the latter were too long for use in the tank, a shorter and thicker sleeve was developed for the tank gun, which resulted in a remake of the breech gun and a reduction in the total length of the barrel to 43 calibres.Kw.K.44 also received a spherical single-chamber muzzle brake, different from an anti-tank gun. In this form, the gun was adopted as 7.5 cm Kw.K.40 L / 43.
Pz.Kpfw.IV with the new cannon was originally designated as "converted" » (German 7.Serie / B.W.-Umbau or Ausf.F-Umbau), but soon received the designation Ausf.F2, while the Ausf.F machines with old tools became known as Ausf.F1 to avoid confusion. The designation of the tank on a single system while changing to Sd.Kfz.161 / 1. With the exception of a different weapon and the associated minor changes, such as installing a new sight, new styling for shots and a slightly modified reservation of recoil guns, the Ausf.F2 early releases were identical to the Ausf.F1 tanks. After a one-month break, associated with the transition to a new modification, the release of Ausf.F2 began in March 1942 and continued until July of the same year. In total, 175 tanks of this variant were produced and another 25 converted from Ausf.F1.
The appearance of the following modification of Pz.Kpfw.IV was not originally caused by any changes in the design of the tank. In June — July 1942, with the orders of the Armaments Directorate, the designation Pz.Kpfw.IV with long-barreled guns was changed to 8.Serie / B.W.or Ausf.G, and in October the designation Ausf.F2 was finally abolished for previously released tanks of this modification. The first tanks, released as Ausf.G, were thus identical to their predecessors, but in the course of further production, more and more changes were made to the design of the tank. Ausf.G of early releases still carried the Sd.Kfz.161 / 1 index through the end-to-end notation, on later releases machines was replaced by Sd.Kfz.161 / 2. The first changes introduced in the summer of 1942 included a new pear-shaped two-chamber muzzle brake, the elimination of viewing devices in the front side plates of the tower and a viewing hatch charging in its frontal plate, the transfer of smoke grenade launchers from the rear of the hull to the sides of the tower and a system to facilitate starting in winter conditions .
Since the 50-mm frontal armor Pz.Kpfw.IV was still insufficient, without providing adequate protection against 57-mm and 76-mm guns, it was again strengthened, by welding or bolting additional 30-mm plates above the upper and lower front plates of the housing. The thickness of the front plate of the turret and the mask of the gun, at the same time, was still 50 mm and in the process of further modernization of the tank did not increase.The introduction of additional reservations began on Ausf.F2, when in May 1942 8 tanks with increased armor thickness were produced, but progressed slowly. By November, with enhanced reservation, only about half of the vehicles were produced, and only in January 1943 it became the standard for all new tanks. Another significant change introduced at Ausf.G since the spring of 1943 was the replacement of the Kw.K.40 L / 43 gun with Kw.K.40 L / 48 with a 48-barrel barrel that had a slightly higher armor penetration. The production of Ausf.G continued until June 1943, a total of 1,687 tanks of this modification were produced. Of this number, about 700 tanks received enhanced reservations and 412 — Kw.K.40 L / 48 gun.
The next modification, Ausf.H, has become the most massive. The first tanks under this designation, descended from the conveyor in April 1943, differed from the last Ausf.G only by thickening the front sheet of the tower’s roof to 16 mm and the rear — up to 25 mm, as well as reinforced side gears with cast driving wheels, but the first 30 Ausf.H tanks received only a thickened roof due to delays in delivering new components. Since the summer of the same year, solid-rolled 80-mm plates were introduced to simplify production instead of an additional 30-mm body reservation.In addition, hinged protivokumulyatnye screens of 5 mm sheets, installed on most Ausf.H. In this regard, viewing devices in the sides of the hull and tower were eliminated as unnecessary. Since September, the tanks received a vertical reservation with zimmerit to protect against magnetic min.
Tanks Ausf.H later releases received a turret mount for the MG-42 machine gun at the hatch commander's turret, as well as a vertical feed plate instead of an inclined, the former on all previous modifications of tanks. During production, various changes were also introduced to reduce the cost and simplify production, such as the introduction of non-rubber support rollers and the elimination of the driver’s periscope viewing device. From December 1943, the front plates of the hull began to connect with the side connections "in the spike", to enhance stamina in slug hits. Production of Ausf.H continued until July 1944. Data on the number of tanks released this modification, given in various sources, are somewhat different, from 3,935 chassis, of which 3,774 were completed as tanks, and 3,960 chassis and 3,839 tanks.
The appearance of the Ausf.J modification on assembly lines since June 1944 was associated with the desire to reduce the price and simplify the production of the tank as much as possible in the deteriorating strategic position of Germany. The only but significant change that distinguished the first Ausf.J from the last Ausf.H was the elimination of the electric drive of the turret rotation and the associated carburetor auxiliary engine with a generator. Shortly after the launch of the release of a new modification, pistol ports in the stern and sides of the turret were eliminated, useless because of the screens, and the design of other hatches was simplified. Since July, an additional fuel tank with a capacity of 200 liters began to be installed at the site of the liquidated auxiliary engine, but the fight against its leakage lasted until September 1944. In addition, the 12-mm roof of the housing began to be strengthened by welding additional 16-mm sheets. All subsequent changes were aimed at further simplifying the design, the most notable among them being the abandonment of the zimmerit coating in September and a reduction in the number of supporting rollers to three on board in December 1944.Production of Ausf.J tanks continued almost until the very end of the war, until March 1945, but the slowdown in production associated with the weakening of German industry and difficulties with the supply of raw materials led to the release of only 1758 tanks of this modification.
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