Firefighting without matches

It’s not as difficult to light a fire without matches, as it may seem at first glance. Having learned this, you will be able to get out of a difficult situation. The duration of survival depends on your ability to make a fire. Consider in this article how to make a fire with a knife (any piece of steel). First of all, choose a place to make a fire. It should be sheltered from rain and wind. If you need to make a fire in the snow, then the snow is either cleared from the place of the campfire within a radius of several meters, or a platform is created from thick logs and stones, on which the campfire is arranged later.
You can use the branches of dried trees as fuel. In wet weather, look for branches on standing trees, and not on the ground. They will be drier, since they are covered from the moisture of the tree's crown, and dry out faster in the wind. In addition, dry wood can be found under the trunks of fallen trees.In areas of rare vegetation, you can use dry roots, herbs, peat, animal fat, and even coal and shale tar. Sponge filaments of the raincoat fungus, pine needles and cones, tree bark, ferns and lichens, clothes shreds, twine, bird feathers are also well ignited. The perfect material for making fire is dust, which can be found even in the rain, clearing the wet top layer of the rotted log.
The bottom of the fire pit is lined with dry, flat branches with a finger thick, so , that under them there was a layer of air. This will provide access to oxygen, and the branches will serve as a blower in the stove. From above, thin dry twigs, bark, pine needles or other previously described, highly flammable materials are placed in a hut.
The next step is to make a tube-horn for making fire. An excellent material for this is birch bark. In case of its absence, dry pine bark, taken entirely with a dry branch line, will suit.In addition, you can use dry grass, fern leaves, etc. Several thin resinous twigs, pine needles, thin strips of birch bark are placed inside the tube.
Now you need to decide on a tinder. It is also very important that it is dry and flammable. A piece of cotton wool from the lining of a jacket, dust, felt, the smallest chips, etc. can be used as a tinder. Now we come directly to the prey of fire. In order for the tinder to begin to smolder, a small spark is enough. Such a spark is cut in an ordinary lighter and is well known to all. For this, a hard stone is struck or struck with a steel bar.
  
Selectonthegroundastonethesizeofafist-silicon,granite,marbleandotherhardrockswilldo.Ifthestoneissmoothandhasnosharpcorners,breakitbetweentwoothersthatarelargeinsize.Atadistanceofamillimeter,apieceoftinderisappliedtothefaceofthestone,afterwhichaknifeisstruckontheedgeofthestoneinthedirectionofthetinder.Asparkcaughtonadrytinderwillcertainlycauseitsdecay,youwillseeaweakthreadofsmoke.Carefully,notstrongly,butevenlyandcontinuouslyblowonthetindertoincreasethecenterofcorruption.
Incasethestonecrumblesandthesparksdonotcutout,donotdespair.Selectanotherstoneandtryagain.Ifyoudonothaveaknifeorotherpieceofsteel,thesparkcanbecutbyblowingtheedgeofonestoneagainsttheother.  Afterreceivingaglowingpieceoftinder,itisplacedinapre-preparedtube.Holdingitatadistanceof25-30centimetersfromtheface,startsmoothlyandevenlyinflateanember.Theairwillpassthroughthetube,heatingitscontents,theemberwillgrow,andsoonthebarkandneedleswillflash.Usingthebundleasabigmatch,setfiretosmalldrytwigsinabonfire.Somerecommendationsshouldberememberedforpreservingfire.Ifatnightweputathick,rottenlog,orviceversa,afreshlychoppedlog,thefirewillburnslowlyandforalongtime.Ifyoukeeptheredcoalsofthefire,sprinklingthemwithashandalayerofsoilontop,thenitwillbeeasierforyoutogetfireinthemorning.Inaddition,havingafewsmallbonfiresaroundwillwarmyoubetterthanabigone.Anotherway:Breedingafirewithoutmatches.Todothis,youwillneedwhatisinanyhouse-itispotassiumpermanganateandglycerin.Pourabout1gramofpotassiumpermanganate(potassiumpermanganate)poundedintofinepowder.Then,fromapipetteorglasstube,gentlydrop2-3dropsofglycerinonitandquicklyremoveyourhand.Itwilltakeonly2-3seconds,andyouwillseehowthefirewillflash.ADDITIONALMATERIALHowtobuildafire?Howtolightafirewithoutmatches?TypesofbonfiresFireisnecessaryforheating,dryingclothes,alarm,cooking,waterpurificationbyboilingit.Thesurvivaltimewillincreaseordecreasedependingonyourabilitytomakefire.&Nbsp;Iftherearematches,youcanmakeafireinanyconditionsandinanyweather.Ifactionsinremoteareasareexpected,stockupasufficientnumberofmatches,whichmustalwaysbekeptinawaterproofbag.Youneedtolearnhowtokeepthematchflameaslongaspossiblewithastrongwind.&Nbsp;CampfireCampfireplace. Itisselectedinanopen,butprotectedfromwindsafeplace,preferablynearwater.Thefireshouldbemadeonalreadytrampledgroundsoronoldfireplaces.Itisadvisabletohaveasappershovelwithyou:itisconvenienttoremovethesodfromtheplacechosenforthefire.Inextremecases,anaxisusedforthis.Inanycase,alldryleaves,branches,needles,grass,cancatchfire,shouldbeotgrestifromthefireplacetoadistanceof1-1,5meters.&Nbsp;Firesafety. Thisisthemainrequirementwhenchoosingaplaceforafire.Youcannotmakeafirecloserthan4-6metersfromtrees,resinousstumpsorroots.Treebranchesshouldnothangoverthefire.&Nbsp;Donotkindlefireinyoungconiferous.Aterriblehighlandfirecaneasilyoccurhere.&Nbsp;Donotmakefiresinareaswithdryreeds,reeds,mossorgrass.Onthem,thefiregoeswithgreatspeed.&Nbsp;Afireisdangerousatcuttings,wherethereareremnantsofforestcombustiblematerials:herethefirespreadsquicklyandthefirethathasstartedisdifficulttostop.&Nbsp;Donotmakeafireonpeatlands.Rememberthatsmolderingpeatisverydifficulttoputout,evenfloodingitwithwater.Unnoticedsmolderingcaneasilyturnintoadevastatingpeatfire.&Nbsp;MakingafireKnead.&Nbsp;Startingabonfirebeginswithakindlingoffirewood,whichismadeofsmallsprucetwigs,bark,drymoss,lichen,chips,splinters.Inwetweather,kindlingisobtainedfromthewoodchipsofdeadwoodthathasbeenchoppedwithanax,dryconiferoustreescoveredwithtreecrownsfromtherain.&Nbsp;Thepreparedkindling-thefuseistightlyplacedunderasmallbrushwoodandfoldedunderatentorawellandsetonfire,andneatlythickerbrushwoodandotherwoodareplacedontop. Intherain,afireismadeunderthecoverofacapeorcloakheldbytwotourists.Thestrongerthewindorrain,thedensershouldbetheinstallationofkindlingandfuelonthefire.Inbadweather,youmusthavedryalcohol,oldfilm,acandlestub,apieceofplexiglassorrubber.&Nbsp;Firebreedingwithoutmatches. Beforeyoutrytolightafirewithoutmatches,preparesomedry,flammablematerials.Thencoverthemfromwindandmoisture.Goodsubstancescanberot,scrapsofclothing,ropeortwine,drypalmleaves,woodchipsandsawdust,birdfeathers,woollyvilliofplantsandothers.Tostockthemforthefuture,putthepartinawaterproofbag.Nodja Forsuchafire,theyprepareevenlogsandcleanthemfrombranchesandtwigs.Twologsareplacedsidebysideontheground,thenagoodkindlingor,betteryet,coalsfroma“ignition”fireisplacedonthem.Fromaboveallpressthethirdlog."Nodja"graduallyinflamesandburnswithasteadyhotflameforseveralhourswithoutadditionalfuel.Itispossibletoadjusttheheatbyslightlypushingandslidingthelowerlogsorpushingthethirdlogoftheairdraft.If you have potassium permanganate and glycerin, you can get a fire when mixing them.

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