Canned Tomato Juice
Canned tomato juice occupies a dominant position in the group of vegetable juices. Its nutritional value and taste qualities ensure high demand among the population. In tomato juice, the mass fraction of soluble solids is 4.5–6.0%; 0.4-0.7% contains organic acids; 20-40 mg% of vitamin C and 0.2–0.8 mg% carotene, as well as vitamins of group B.
Tomato juice is produced naturally and with the addition of salt, spices, other vegetable and fruit juices, as well as concentrated. In addition, on the basis of tomato juice is made drinks containing juice or mashed potatoes of other vegetables, salt, sugar - "Aromatic", "Tomato", "Special", "Youth".
Raw material In tomato and juice production, fresh, healthy, ripe tomatoes, hand-picked and mechanized, are allowed for processing. Raw materials that are rotten, frost-bitten and unripe - pink, brown and green are not accepted.
The most promising varieties of tomato harvesting machines for the production of tomato juice were Novy Transnistria, Torch, Nystru, Kolokolchik, characterized by good taste with a sugar-acid index of 6-7 and a high content of vitamins.Recommended varieties of manual collection: Volgograd 5/95, Kolkhoz 34, Podarok, Biruintsa, Miracle of the Market, Yerevan, etc.
Preparation of raw materials. This process includes the following operations: washing and sorting, crushing and coarse rubbing.
Tomatoes are unloaded into containers with water or hydrotransporters - concreted or metal gutters with a slope of 1: 12, where the raw material is pre-washed and removes a significant part of the soil, sand through a system of traps installed in the bottom of the bathtubs and gutters.
On the elevator feeding the tomatoes to the sink, removable bar grids are installed to separate the residues of tops, stalks, soyaks and other plant inclusions.
The raw materials are washed in two successively installed A9-KMB-12 and A9-KMB-8 washers, sorted by color manually on a roller conveyor or automatically using a photoelectric device, in front of which it is necessary to install a hydraulic chuck for flotation of tomatoes based on immersion in water, depending on their degree of maturity. After sorting, an inspection is carried out on the conveyor, ending with a shower device for rinsing tomatoes.
Tomatoes are crushed on CBS crushers, where seeds are removed simultaneously with crushing. The resulting crushed mass - the pulp is fed to a cleaning machine with a hole diameter of 5 mm sieves to separate the corky and green parts of the fetus, which are unused waste. This operation is called pre-wiping, and the pulp is coarse-grated.
In the industrial production of tomato juice, heating is an important technological operation and is used to convert protopectin into soluble pectin, inactivate enzymes, remove air, and improve the consistency of the product.
The splitting of protopectin to soluble pectin increases the yield of juice, reduces loss and delamination of the finished product. Inactivation of the enzymes - pectinesterase and polygalacturonase, which are part of the raw material, improves the taste, color and allows you to get a juice of good viscosity.
It should be borne in mind that heating should be carried out quickly - for 6-10 s. Otherwise, during slow heating, when the mass is at 60 ° C for about a minute, pectinesterase cleaves methyl alcohol from soluble pectin to form polygalacturonic acid, and polygalacturonase hydrolyzes the latter to monogalacturonic acid.In this case, there is a decrease in viscosity, sedimentation of particles of the pulp, the product stratifies, which impairs the texture and presentation.
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